On the evening of Friday the 28th of February 1941, the Home Guard Committee met in Cambridge where the issue of key EPS men who were also serving in the Home Guard was discussed at length. It was announced to the meeting that in the event of an invasion, the EPS were required to stay at their posts. Concern was raised that despite this, several key men within the Cambridge EPS also had leading positions in the Home Guard. Chairman Walter Moore said that the Government Liaison Officer had made the position on this matter clear to him. He said that such men as Power Board employees, Borough Council employees and Fire Brigade members were required for the EPS. However there was nothing to stop them from training with the Home Guard. During the discussion it was suggested that there may be no limit to the number of key men required, and that even farmers could fall into the category. Alf Swayne suggested that rather than holding back important Home Guard officers for the EPS, other men could be found and trained to take over their EPS duties, relieving them for the Home Guard. John Bruce suggested that nothing further could be done on the matter until the reorganisation of the Emergency Precautions Scheme was completed. It was agreed that until the changes were in place, which were being undertaken by Mayor Edgar James, the so-called 'key' EPS men in the Home Guard would continue to train with the Guard. Captain Kennedy added that currently the attestation papers of all those in the Home Guard were being sorted through to see which men were more suited to the EPS. Those found not fit for Home Guard training would be honourably discharged, provided they agreed to join the EPS.
The Home Guard Committee also discussed Roto-o-Rangi's desire to leave the Cambridge Battalion, following a deputation from Roto-o-Rangi Home Guardsmen Samuel Macky and G. Macky. The unit had been transferred to the Cambridge Battalion on the 21st of January, but the men unanimously wanted to return to the fold of the Waipa County Te Awamutu Battalion. It was stated that Waipa however had no desire to take Roto-o-Rangi back. But in view of the unanimous vote, the Cambridge committee agreed that it did not want to send men where they did not want to go. The committee hoped that the two areas could come to an arrangement, although the battalions had no power to make such decisions. For the time being, nothing was to stop individual members parading in either Cambridge or Te Awamutu. Captain Kennedy said that the boundary changes that had caused Roto-o-Rangi's problems had been drawn up from a military point of view, and not from a county angle. Although no other reason was known why Roto-o-Rangi wanted to change back to Waipa Battalion apart from the fact that they were remaining in their own county, Captain Kennedy suggested that the committee make the recommendation to transfer the unit back. He said the Cambridge Battalion was already at full strength without the unit, having 702 men, with more expected to come (this figure being the entire Battalion number, not just the Cambridge units.) Mr Alf Swayne then moved that a recommendation to rescind the motion that fixed the boundaries on the 21st of January be made by the committee to the Hamilton Area Committee. He regretted the loss of the unit, saying there were many valuable Guardsmen and a highly capable commander in the platoon. He added that all would be welcome to continue attending the Cambridge parades for specialist training.
Further business for the Home Guard Committee in Cambridge was a request by Mr W. Harbutt, chairman of directors of the Cambridge Co-operative Dairy Company. In a letter from Harbutt to the committee, he asked if it would be possible for the Home Guard to mount patrols at the Hautapu, Pukeroro and Monavale dairy factories. He suggested such patrols were in the national interest. He recommended that a roster could be drawn up so patrols were not too frequent for individuals, and he said it was desired that the factories were guarded from 21.00hrs until 05.00hrs each night. Mr W. Morrow suggested that as the cheese was being produced as part of the war effort, the request should be made to the Defence Department instead, where permanent guards should be sought. Reuben Entwistle agreed, saying he had been in touch with the Liaison Officer of the Home Guard, who had said this was definitely a matter for the Defence Department. Where the Home Guards would have no rifles, men of the National Military Reserve would, and they would receive military pay for these duties. The committee decided to advise the Dairy Company to approach the Minister of Defence, as the Home Guard had no power to take action in this situation.
By the end of February 1941, the recruiting rally that had been held at the end of the previous month had successfully seen 123 new members join the Cambridge Home Guard. An attempt to find information on how to claim the compensation for two Guards who had been injured in an accident whilst returning home from a parade earlier in the month was ongoing. Despite the fact that these two were wearing their brassards as required, the letter to the Area Commander seeking the procedure on claiming the compensation had still not received a reply. A final act for the month of February was the Cambridge Home Guard Committee's official acceptance of the offer of assistance from Major Frederick Kingsford of the 16th Waikato Regiment who, along with several NCO's from his regiment, had already assisted with many hours of training for the Cambridge Home Guard. The regulars were now officially recognised as instructors for the Cambridge companies.
Captain Edward Kennedy had made recommendations for four new officers within the Cambridge Home Guard to the Area Commander, Lieutenant-Colonel McFarland. They were for Howard Rishworth M.C. to become Second-in-Command of the Cambridge Home Guard; Reuben Entwistle to be made Adjutant; Arthur Richardson to be appointed the Transport Officer; and Alfred Bluck to become Intelligence Officer.
Howard Rishworth had an excellent record of previous military service, and was well suited to the post of Second-in-Command. He had served with the College Rifles Volunteers from 1907 till 1914. At the beginning of World War One he was attached to Divisional Signal Company and left with the main body. At this time he held the rank of Sergeant. He served in Egypt, Gallipoli and France, and received a commission in the Royal Engineers.
In 1918 he was awarded the Military Cross. After the Armistice he was posted to the British Army of the Rhine for 12 months, before his discharge from service on the 16th of July 1920. He retained the rank of Lieutenant in the Reserve of Officers.
Reuben Entwistle was born in India, and as a young man was a member of the cadet corps attached to the Bombay Volunteer Rifle Regiment. In June 1914 he joined the 5th Battalion, The Loyal Regiment (North Lancashire) as a Second Lieutenant.___
From February 1915 until September 1917 he had served in France. Whilst there, he acted as assistant Provost Marshall and Town Major. He was invalided out of the army with the rank of Lieutenant.
Arthur Richardson's military service and his long association with the carrying business made him the perfect fit for the position of Transport Officer. He had joined the 3rd Dragoon Guards as a Trooper in June 1916. He received a commission on the Curragh and was posted to the Yorkshire Dragoons. He served in France until the end of the Great War, and was discharged in 1919 with the rank of Lieutenant. Richardson had appointed Dick Newcombe as his Transport Sergeant.
Alfred Bluck had been too young to see service in the Great War, but he had served in the Territorials. His exceptional keenness and ability in scouting, observing and map reading were factors in him receiving the appointment to Intelligence Officer. His sergeant was to be Charlie Vennell.
At the parade on Thursday 6th of March, 168 men attended Headquarters Company's parade at the Town Hall for specialist training as usual, while 116 men of ‘A' Company were transported in motor cars to the golf links to take part in night-time manoeuvres. They took up positions on the golf links, in preparation of “attacking an enemy force at dawn”. The transport arrangements were included as part of the exercise. Another 17 new men were attested, 11 joining ‘A' Company, and 6 joining the Headquarters Company. This brought the total strength of the two companies up to 433. In the Battalion there were now over 700 men, but there were still more required, and plans for a third Cambridge Company were underway.
At the same time in nearby Hamilton, the role of the city's Home Guard had just passed the 1000 mark. A further figure for the whole of the No 4 (Hamilton) Military Area, whose nine Battalions included Cambridge, showed that by February 28th a total of 6501 men had joined units in the region.
On Sunday the 10th of March, under the instruction of Company Sergeant Major Tom Reilly, ‘A' Company carried out a successful day of elementary field exercises, held at the Cambridge Racecourse.
The next evening Captain Kennedy visited the Karapiro Works Platoon, accompanied by his second-in-command Lt. Rishworth and Sergeant Major Reilly. There were 20 men of the platoon on parade, under the command of Mr Andrews.
Sgt Major Reilly gave them instruction in squad drill. Arrangements were also made for the Karapiro Platoon's NCO's to attend special training at the Drill Hall on Saturday afternoons.
The Cambridge Borough Council, like all the other councils in the country, received a circular letter from the Stratford Borough Council, which sought support in urging the New Zealand Government to adopt compulsory conscription for the Home Guard. The letter read as follows:
“That, in view of the serious position now obtaining, the threatening aspect in the Pacific, and the urgent need for preparedness for local defence, this council urges upon the Government that it exercises its powers under the Home Defence and Emergency Precautions schemes by all those fit and able to render service therein, and not at present being called on for overseas service or serving in the defence forces of this country.”
The letter went on to say that if men were being called up for overseas service by ballot, and rightly so, then what objection should be made for a ballot system being introduced for service in the Home Guard?
In fact, an amendment to the Emergency Service Corps Regulations of 1940 had been introduced in September 1940 and was now in place, which meant the Minister of National Service had the power to direct any individual at his discretion to serve in the Home Guard.
This new law stated that any person directed into the Home Guard “shall thereupon become a member of the Home Guard in the same manner to all intents and purposes as if he had voluntarily enrolled and been attested.”
So compulsory conscription could be seen as a natural extension of this amendment. A further amendment to the scheme abolished the requirement for commanders and other officers to be appointed from among the members of the Home Guard.
By March 13th the total membership of the Cambridge Companies was 451 men. Eighteen new members were signed up at the weekly parade that night, and all but one were appointed to ‘A' Company. For the parade ‘A' Company, consisting of 152 men on the evening, had its platoon sizes reduced to nine men and a leader each. Major Kingsford of the 16th Waikato Regiment then addressed the company with a review of the previous week's exercise at the golf links. He explained to the guardsmen where they had made various mistakes, and announced that another similar exercise would take place the following Thursday evening. The parade was then completed with rifle exercises and drill. Meanwhile Headquarters Company, consisting of 143 men for the parade, had continued to train in their specialised fields. A number of men with experience in driving heavy vehicles were transferred from ‘A' Company to Headquarters Company, to be drafted into the new Transport Platoon.
Despite now surpassing 450 men in the Cambridge Home Guard, it was still hoped that this figure would rise. One way of achieving this was the establishment of a rural platoon at Maungatautari, which would be attached to the Cambridge Home Guard. The Maungatautari platoon, formed at a meeting on Saturday 15th of March 1941, at Maungatautari No. 2 School, was set up because of the long distance that members in the area had to travel to attend Cambridge parades.
In the area, which encompassed Maungatautari, Horahora and Orepunga, there were already 19 residents who had joined the Cambridge Home Guard. They would form the core of the platoon, but it was hoped that eventually they would number up to 50 men from the district.
Meanwhile at Roto-o-Rangi's parade on March 15th a total of 69 men had attended. Under Captain Dillon, the platoon received instructional training from Sergeant-Major Tootill of Te Awamutu, and it was reported that the guardsmen keenly appreciated his lecture.
At the first meeting of the new platoon in the Maungatautari-Horahora district, a surprisingly large turnout was experienced. Mr E. La Trobe was appointed Platoon Commander, and Thomas Hill as secretary. The platoon consisted of a number of men already trained as specialists in Headquarters Company, and arrangements were going to have to be made to define their position.
Another rural platoon outside Cambridge was set up at Kaipaki around this time. With 40 men on strength, the platoon commander was Charles Garmonsway, with Ivan Cruickshank as the secretary. Several section leaders had been attending instructional classes, and parades were being held each week in the Kaipaki Hall, pending on the installation of floodlights at the sports ground.
On the 17th of March it was announced in the Waikato Independent that a large-scale exercise was being planned for the Cambridge Home Guard, to take place on Sunday March 30th . It was to be on a much larger scale than the previous exercise held near the gasworks.
A letter from the National Service Department Director was read to the Cambridge Borough Council on the evening of Thursday March 20th defining the position of key members of local body industry who were in the Home Guard, and the conflict of interest that would arise between their two tasks in an emergency. The Department Director, Mr J.S. Hunter, ruled on the dilemma as follows:
“There is a large proportion of employees on local bodies and public utility corporations whose services are essential to the running of the particular public service or utility in an emergency. They must be regarded as ‘key' men. It is directed that these men must not be attested and enrolled in the Home Guard - they may enrol in the E.P.S. organisation provided they can be posted to a unit that would, in any case, deal with their particular utility, but they must not enrol with the Home Guard. If any such men are already enrolled, they must be released forthwith.”
This news caused some controversy within the council meeting. In particular the council discussed Frank Green, an officer in the Home Guard and also manager of the Cambridge gasworks. The Mayor Edgar James regretted the fact that the decision was out of the council's hands, and the fact that the word ‘must' was used in the directive meant they had to comply. He suggested that in the meantime Mr Green could continue in the Home Guard,
A further paragraph in the directive had stated men in positions with the local body utilities who were not in ‘key' positions did not have to join the E.P.S., and could join the Home Guard instead. Mr James added that several men who had been directed into the E.P.S. previously could now be released for service in the Home Guard. Also there were many men in the Home Guard who were not fit for duty in the civilian army, and might be better suited in the E.P.S.
The Mayor asked for Frank Green's opinion of the situation. He answered that he had realised all along that he would have to join the E.P.S. eventually. At present in the Home Guard he trained the specialists. The platoon of specialists would, in the event of an invasion, be divided up between all the other platoons. This would see him have no platoon to command in an emergency.
He considered that when that time should come, if it came, he would then forget the Home Guard to pursue his E.P.S. duties.
The council all agreed that Mr Green should continue with the Home Guard, as it was clear where his priorities would lie in the event of an emergency.
Also at the council meeting, the letter from the Stratford Borough Council regarding conscription into the Home Guard was read and discussed. The Mayor said he believed in equality of service, and he felt that it should not be the case where some men served in the Home Guard and E.P.S., and others didn't. He was all in favour of compulsory service. He added that Home Guard training could do no harm to anyone who was conscripted. However Councillor William Moore said he felt that he failed to see any good in the training until the Home Guard was armed. Cr. W. R. Garrard said there was no point asking the Government to take on any further effort at this time. He felt that the Government was already moving too fast with the Home Guard organisation. Mayor James agreed that the Home Guard was insufficiently armed, but he felt all men should join and be prepared. He moved that the resolution be supported, and Cr. Neville Souter seconded his motion.
Councillor Ken. Wilkinson stated that the Home Guard could barely accommodate the members it already had and they should be better staying with just those men who had been keen to volunteer, rather than extras forced into the Guard. Cr. Souter replied, “It will be too late to start and train men when the enemy are at our gates.” He added that rifles and ammunition would be coming to hand shortly.
Then Cr. Arthur Nicoll said he considered that the Government was taxed to capacity in training troops for overseas and the Territorials. He moved an amendment that the letter be received, and this was carried. The Mayor and Councillors Neville Souter and Mervyn Wells recorded their votes against it.
Further Home Guard business at the council meeting saw the council raise no objection to the Roto-o-Rangi platoon formally transferring to the Waipa Battalion. The Waipa County Council also had no objections to the platoon coming under their command. Another coup for the Roto-o-Rangi platoon was the agreement by the Cambridge Electric Power Board to install floodlights at their meeting place of the dairy factory, so they could parade outdoors at night. The power board also agreed to meet the costs with the Waipa County Council of the installation. This generous offer from the power board was actually becoming a common practise around New Zealand, where rural Home Guard platoons were having lights installed and part paid for by their local electricity suppliers, all in the interest of the nation.
Once again, the Cambridge Co-operative Dairy Company put in a request for the Home Guard to patrol one of their factories. This time the factory they wanted to have patrolled at night was the Roto-o-rangi dairy factory. Rather than approaching the Home Guard Committee, which previously they had done unsuccessfully regarding other factories, they instead asked the Borough Council's permission. The Co-op hoped that sufficient members of the Home Guard who lived in the area around the factory would volunteer to be put onto a roster for occasional night-time duty, guarding the facility against sabotage or enemy attack. However, once again the Dairy Company was asked to refer their request to either the Police or the Government. The council was concerned that men on patrol would have to carry and perhaps use firearms, and special authority would have to be obtained from the Police to do so. The clerk of the council also mentioned that the question of indemnifying the council's Home Guard Committee against any claims that may arise out of and in the course of the protection of the factory was also an important factor to be considered. The council decided to forward a copy of the Dairy Company's letter of request onto the Minister of National Service for his opinion.
Meanwhile, as all the important business of the council took place in the chambers of the Town Hall, the Home Guard met for their usual parade. Bad weather affected the attendance however, with just 90 men turning out for ‘A' Company, and 139 at the Headquarters Company parade.
‘A' Company were given two short lectures, the first by Company Commander Alf Swayne, who talked about field exercises. Major Kingsford gave the second lecture, a talk on the use of hand grenades. Following these short talks, the men of ‘A' Company continued with rifle exercises and squad drill.
Headquarters Company trained in their usual specialised roles of warfare. Due to the wet weather the exercises were held indoors, and two large buildings in Duke Street, which were owned by Messrs Wilkinson and Co. Ltd. were used by some of the sections. A German machine gun, most probably brought back from the Great War as a souvenir, was used by No. 3 Platoon to assist their training.
It was announced to the Home Guard that on the following Sunday afternoon, the officers and NCO's would look over the terrain to be used in the planned large-scale exercise.
On the Sunday morning, before this reconnaissance of the terrain took place, most Home Guards took part in a special church parade that had been called by King George VI, who asked for Sunday the 23rd of March 1941 to be observed as a day of prayer throughout the Empire. The guardsmen paraded at the Drill Hall at 10:30hrs, before parading up Victoria Street behind the Cambridge Municipal Band. Once they reached the Town Hall, they were dismissed to attend church, not in one particular place, but simply at their own churches around the town. It was reported that this was the fourth special church parade which the Home Guard had taken part in.
At the weekly parade on the 27th of March, 132 men of ‘A' Company paraded at the Drill Hall, where they carried out more rifle exercises and squad drill. A vote was taken after a discussion about which day the men preferred to train on during the weekends, and a small majority voted that they preferred Saturday to Sunday as their regular day. A further vote as to whether Thursday still suited them for the weekly evening parades, and a large majority voted to keep Thursday night parades as a regular fixture. Down the road at the Town Hall, Headquarters Company paraded with 187 men present. Specialised training was continued with.
Company Commander Frank Green announced a new system to save time. In future men would fall in for parade at 7:45pm at the place where they intend to operate for the evening and commence training immediately, rather than all gather at the hall and then disperse to the various locations. The full company parade will now only be held after the completion of training, unlike before when they had gathered as a company before and after the individual specialised training classes. Ten new members were enrolled at the parade.
At Roto-o-rangi the Home Guard's facilities were moving along. The Cambridge Power Board were complying with a request put to them on Wednesday 26th of March, to provide for the installation of floodlighting the parade ground and electricity to use the lights. The piece of land to be lit was actually on the property of Captain John Peake, the Roto-o-Rangi Home Guard's second-in-command. The Power Board engineer, Mr H. C. Oaten , said the costs were estimated at £46, and he stated that the equipment would remain property of the Power Board and be returned to them when no longer required. Power Board chairman Mervyn Wells wondered whether asphalting in front of the Roto-o-Rangi factory for the Guards to use as a parade ground should now go ahead. The Cambridge Dairy Company Ltd. and the Waipa County Council had both agreed to share costs in laying the asphalt, but if a separate section of land was to be lit for parading, it didn't make sense. The suggestion that in wintertime the paddock to be lit would get very wet underfoot was made. It was decided a sub-committee of Mervyn Wells and John Brock would investigate the unit's needs further.
The Power Board also agreed to install lights in the storeroom of Messrs Wilkinson and Co. Ltd, to assist the training of the Cambridge Home Guard who used this building. The Power Board committee made a further important decision. Frank Oliver, who was Secretary of the Power Board, would not fall into the category of a ‘key man' in an emergency, and therefore he could continue serving with the Home Guard in his post of Platoon Commander, No 1 Platoon, Headquarters Company. It had originally been thought Oliver would be required in an emergency by the Power Board under the EPS scheme, but on consideration the emergency work could be completed by the engineer and outside staff, and Mr Oliver's presence would probably not be required.
The Battle of Whitehall
On March 28th the plans for the big exercise that would be held in two days time were revealed in the Waikato Independent newspaper. The exercise was planned to unfold in the Whitehall area, a particularly hilly region of farming country with still a number of patches of forest to the west of Cambridge. Taking part would not only be Cambridge's ‘A' Company and Headquarters Company, but also the two platoons from Tauwhare, one platoon from the Tamahere Home Guard, plus the Karapiro Works platoon. Also taking part were the local St John Ambulance squad, the Voluntary Aid Detachment (VAD) nurses and the Cambridge Boy Scouts.
The main objectives for the exercise were laid out as giving officers and NCO's training in practical handling of the men, teaching the Guardsmen patrol and reconnaissance work, and instruction in the use of cover, both from enemy fire and observation from the air. Much preparation had been put into this exercise to ensure that it would be a success. On the previous Sunday all the officers and NCO's of the two Cambridge Companies had visited the site, and the Intelligence Section had also made visits, developing detailed and accurate maps of the locality.
In the exercise plans, the defenders would be made up from the machine-gun platoon and wiring section of Headquarters Company. The VAD's and St John Ambulance would set up first aid posts and casualty clearing stations. The St John Ambulance Association had recently purchased six new stretchers, and they would be used for the first time in the exercise. The Boy Scouts from Cambridge would take their part by acting as runners for the Quartermaster-Sergeant and the Intelligence Officer. In charge of the whole operation would be Captain Edward Kennedy, the Battalion Commander.
The referees would be Major H. Senior M.C., who was second-in-command of the 1st Battalion, 16th Waikato Regiment, and 2nd Lieutenant G.E.L. Dawson, N.Z.S.C., adjutant of the same battalion.
The whole scheme started at 10:00am on Sunday 30th of March. Over 300 people took part in the battle exercise. The machine-gun section of Headquarters Company left Cambridge to take up their positions defending what was called Reservoir Ridge, on the property of Jimmy Jeans, at Whitehall. It was assumed that an invading army, which had landed at Tauranga, were advancing on the ridge from the north with the intention of capturing the hydroelectric dam at Arapuni. The enemy had advanced without opposition to the French Pass Road. It had already been reported that the Whitehall Road was impassable at a vital point, and it was necessary for the defenders to secure possession of Reservoir Ridge.
The attackers gathered at the Drill Hall in Fort Street, and following instructions were then transported in lorries of the Home Guard's Transport Section (which were all leant to the guard by companies such as Cambridge Transport), and private cars. Within minutes of the order being given, 20 lorries were on the road, making towards their objective by way of French Pass Road.
On their arrival, the men split into sections and marched off to attempt to take Reservoir Ridge from both flanks. The attackers moving up the left flank kept close to the road and cut in near the sharemilker's house on Charles Jeans' property. The greater part of the road was ‘mined', at least according to the plans, and was therefore out of bounds. The referees drew attention to this fact during their reviewing of the exercise later in the day.
The men attacking on the right flank went across the very difficult countryside. In less than two hours the final assault was made, and the ridge was reached. The defenders made a valiant stand using, apparently, realistic land mines and bombs. However the odds were in the favour of the attackers, despite not having the advantage of any artillery support.
Headquarters Company's specialists proved invaluable to both the attackers and the defenders. The maps that had been prepared by the Intelligence Section were a considerable asset to the officers, giving them a full understanding of the area. When the plan for the attackers on the right flank saw that they would have to cross the Karapiro Stream, the bridge-building section was sent ahead. By the time the main body of men arrived, a pontoon bridge had been erected, enabling the men to cross. The umpires were very impressed by this effort. Once all were across the stream, the bridge was dismantled in just four and a half minutes, which also impressed the umpires.
The signallers fully demonstrated their efficiency too. Each section taking part in the exercise had a couple of members from the signalling platoon with them. This enabled all the sections to keep in touch with headquarters using both Morse code semaphore. It was reported that many of the messages were sent over very long distances, but all were received correctly.
The wiring section erected a double apron barbed wire fence on the brow of the hill, and a demolition was also active in the exercise. A number of ‘casualties' were sent back behind the lines from each section, and St John Ambulance crews, who were also acting as stretcher-bearers, treated them. The more ‘serious' cases were transferred onto the clearing stations that the VAD had set up. The Boy Scouts were also active as runners, and proved to be most valuable.
After the operation was completed, the Battalion returned to the headquarters, which had been set up on the property of Mr Gilbert Hulse. Here the Quartermaster Sergeant and his staff, which included the Boy Scouts, had prepared hot tea for the parched troops. As the men ate their lunch, the umpires addressed them with their summary of the day's actions. Both Major Senior and Lieutenant Dawson considered the exercise to have been excellent. They felt this more so when considering the very difficult countryside and “serious natural obstacles” which had to be tackled in the attack. They were impressed with the section commanders, acknowledging their good control of the men and their excellent sense of initiative. The umpires also congratulated the Guardsmen on their great enthusiasm.
Captain Kennedy then thanked Major Senior and Lieutenant Dawson for their valuable assistance in the exercise. He went on to thank the staff of St John Ambulance, the girls of the VAD, and the boys of the Scouts for their work too. Finally he expressed his appreciation for the manner in which everyone had done their utmost to make the manoeuvres a great success.
It was noted too that an interested spectator of the day's events was Lieutenant-Colonel R. D. McFarland M.C., the area commander of No 4 Military Area. The conclusion of The Battle Of Whitehall came when the huge contingent made their way back to Cambridge via Karapiro.